Phoenicians are Jews

Andrey Zelev. Phoenicians are Jews. Phoenicians and Jews were one people.

".... Jews have constructed altars of Baalu to burn the sons on fire as sacrifices of Baalu which I (Iegova) did not approve" (Ierem. 19:3-5)"

Phoenicians have constructed the well-known Carthago, waged the Punic wars with Rome, the first has rounded Africa.

Phoenicians were: great commander Gannibal, the founder of stoicism of Zenon Kitijsky, Gannon the Seafarer, the ancestor of geometry of Evklid, the first of 7 wise men of Fales Miletsky, lawyer Ulpian, emperors of Roman empire of a dynasty Severov and many other geniuses.

It is considered that Phoenicians (kena'anm) are neighbours of Jews, pagans.

Actually between Jews and Phoenicians was not what difference, it there were one people, with the same religion, language, customs; the Spanish Jews (Sephardi Jews) originate in Phoenician colonizers of Africa and Spain.


Canaan is an ancient term for a region encompassing modern-day Israel and Lebanon, the Palestinian Territories, plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Jordan, Syria and northeastern Egypt.


For antique authors Jews and Phoenicians were one people: so, for poet Herila Samos (V century BC) Jews inhabitants of Jerusalem are Phoenicians, and their language Phoenician, Feofrast (372-288 BC) identifies inhabitants of a Phoenician city the Shooting gallery with Jews. The same opinion there was Gerodot, Gekatej Abdersky, Manefon.

The name "Lebanon" can be connected with names "Levi" / "Labaji" / "Lavan".

Hapiru (Hebrews) mentioned in ancient documents not the people, and a social layer of Phoenicians (Canaanite people).

The name Ibri (Jews) is applied in the Bible not only on Israelis, but also to all related them to tribes. All these tribes spoke in the Jewish language (Kamen Meshi) and observed trimming.

Three series of skulls of Canaan of an average bronze age allowing on anthropology level are known to confirm identity of Phoenicians and Jews.

Prophet Hoshea (12:8) names inhabitants of the Israeli kingdom Canaanite people.


Historian Manefon, wrote that Egypt was grasped by the Phoenicians of Hyksos who have based Jerusalem. It coincides with the story from the Bible about settling of Egypt by Jews.

Hyksos also were Jews. After overthrow Hyksos, Jews have turned to usual citizens of east society, and were involved in public works.

The Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those which contain the names of Semitic deities such as Anath or Ba'al.

The identity Hyksos both Jews proves to be true also scarabs the seals under the form similar to the bugs, dated between Average and New kingdoms, with Semitic names of tsars of Anat-har and Iakub-har.

Bible names confirm unity of the Phoenician Jewish: so, names of Isaak and Moisej ancient Egyptian, Jacob Phoenician truncation from extended in II thousand BC at the Semitic people of a name yahqub-el, or yaakub-el which primordial value ` the Lord ` has protected [me]. Names of Pharaohs-giksosov too the Phoenician. The name of Ester is obviously devoted the Babylon goddess Ishtar, Phoenician Astarte. The name of Mardehaj is devoted Marduk, god of inhabitants of Babylon. God Adonaj goes back to the Phoenician Adonis; Jahve (Jevo) to a Phoenician sea deity.

Jews professed Phoenician cults of Astarty and Ba'ala.

Jews professed Phoenician cults of Astarty and Ba'al.

The name of Phoenician god - Ba'al - joined in the Jewish names, for example Ish-Ba'al, Mary-Ba'al, Ierubba'al. Joseph Flavy mentions rebel Annibala, that is Gannibala. In general names at Phoenicians and at Jews often similar, for example the Barrack, Mattan and others.

That Ba'al same Jahve is proved by a name of the tsar of Edom by name of Ba'al Hanan (Hannibal) ben-Ahbor meeting on the press in the form of Hananiagu a bar-ahbor. Hence Phoenician Ba'al same Jewish Iagu.

Obviously, ancient Jews long worshipped to Phoenician gods.


Documents of Elefantiny (V century BC) also say that initially Jews worshipped to many gods: though in the centre of belief and the cult connected with it there was Jahu, by Jews also Ashambetel and Anatbetel here were esteemed. Names of these goddesses should be compared with mentioned at prophet Amos Ashmat of Samaritans and the goddess of war of Anat esteemed in all Near East (it is similar such place names in Israel, as Anatot and Bet-Anat); a lexeme (` the house of god `; it is similar the Bet-ale) it is testified as a proper name in Judea during an epoch of board Darija I.

The considerable part of the Jewish clan of Ashera has merged with the Phoenician population of coast of the city of Akko.

Knee name It is given etymologically speaks in an agonal prophetical word of Iakova: it will be Allowed to judge the people, as one of knees of Israel; 49, 16; about presence of ancient Phoenician sources of the cult connected about this name, the sacral designation ' il dn, god of court, in the text from Ugarita testifies; the assumption is come out that a name Is given name reduction dnny'l on type akkad;tum shamash idinnani, god Solntsa Shamash judged to me, and also a name Ashur-is given.

Phoenicians esteemed Baal-Tsafona and mountain Tsafon. Honouring of this mountain reminds honouring by Jews of Sinai and Zion. In the Bible text, in that part which concerns to Sacred, considered written down in Babylon apprx. V century BC, find a number of the names including a root tsafon: Elitsafan. In I Knige Paralipomenon sons of Elitsafana are mentioned.

Jews worshipped to Ba'al-Peoru before arrival to Canaan during wanderings in desert in the Outcome from Egypt.

Already Lidzbarski (Lidzbarski. Ephemeris fr semitische Epigraphik I. 243-260) in the special article devoted by Ba'al-Shamemu, the Supreme god of a hanaanejsko-Aramaic pantheon, sees in its cult influence of Iudejstva using name Elah Semaja for a designation of True God in the intercourses with the Persian government. B.A.turaev agrees with it, and pays attention to that, as the Persian government respecting Judaic monotheism, also used this name in the decrees concerning Jews. However in the contract of Assarhaddona with Ba'alom, the tsar of the Shooting gallery, Ba'al-Shamem it is mentioned at the head of the Shooting gallery pantheon. Hence, Phoenicians and Jews worshipped to one God.

Divinity of Canaan, representation about its sanctity, specifies in that, Jews have not simply located there after the Outcome from Egypt, but it was their native land.

A.A.Nemirovsky the first has guessed that Cain the mythical ancestor of Phoenicians Xva (Henna). It not only means that myths of Phoenicians were included into the Bible (these loans are not limited to history about Avel and Kaine, look Garbini G. La letteratura dei fenici//Atti del II congresso internazionale di studi fenici e puniche. Roma, 1991), but also that the ancestor of Phoenicians is shown by the first-born. Cain Adam and Eve's named so the elder son for Eve has told: "I have got the son from the Lord". It has constructed also the first city on the Earth Hanoh.

Henna a name of god of underground fire, Geenna fiery " a valley Hennom was a place of departure of its cult". Also have arranged heights of Tofeta in a valley of sons of Ennomovyh, that the sons and the daughters on fire. Children of ancient Jews were sacrificed up to an epoch of the Babylon capture not only in a valley by Hinnom, but also in other places: "also have arranged heights of Vaalu to burn the sons fire in a victim Vaalu (Henna-ushu)".

Hence, Jews long time worshipped to Phoenician religion.

Owing to shortage of fresh water and earthquakes ancestors of Phoenicians have left on the West, and their same way, as at Avraam. Still historian Malh quoted by Joseph Flaviem, knows about Avraam Surime's sons, the ancestor of assyrians, and the Swindle, won together with Melkartom Africa.

The Roman emperor Phoenician Alexander Sever in the chapel held Avraam's icon. In general dynasty Sever suspiciously treated kindly Jews.


Religious figures of Ieronim, Tertullian and Avgustin marked an antiquity and prosperity of the Jewish communities of Mauritania, Numidia and Libya the countries, the former Phoenician colonies. According to Ieronimu, Jews have formed a continuous chain of settlements from Mauritania through all North of Africa and Palestin to India. When its Vulgata began to extend among the African Christians, Jews have started up hearing that transfer is inexact and full of errors, than have caused the big disagreement among the local Christian communities. Philosopher Filon Alexandria said that Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia have been densely occupied by the Jews which number reached one million person.

With an epoch of Antiquity Phoenicians disappear, but on their place there are Jews.

Whence Jews in Spain, Portugal and Morocco undertook in the early Middle Ages in such quantity? Possibly these Jews - descendants of Phoenician colonists.

On a place of Mauritania and Berberii of mentions of Phoenicians, since Avgustina, no that is strange if to consider, as they dominated there in Antiquity. But the Arabs who have come to the Western Africa have found out there the Jewish state.

Let's recollect the well-known community of Kajruana based by Arabs apprx. Carthago (670 year AD), become by the centre not only Judaic, but also a secular science of Jews. It is characteristic that this city named the African Jerusalem.

Fets in Morocco from which have received the name Karaims of Moisej Alfasi and researcher Talmuda Isaak Alfasi was the following on value a city. it is constructed in 808 year by imam Idrisom II, but already at it there was a Jewish quarter "Mellah" that means Jews lived in these parts even before construction of Fes. And even in spite of the fact that when the city was is taken by Abd-al-Muminom (1145), the ardent follower of fanatic Mohammed ibn-Tumarta, strong persecutions have begun, and next year Morocco has fallen, and Islam or exile have been given Jews on a choice, many ran then to Italy, Spain and Palestin, however, the most part has accepted Islam, and all the same, already in V century according to Bakumi, Jews made a body of the population of a city.

In Fat (during the Antique period the Roman colony of Fat), a city at the Atlantic coast Morocco, to the west of Rabat from which it is separated the river of Bu-Regreg, on presence of Jews at II century testifies an inscription on a gravestone of the Jew. In area Fat even after the local population reference in Islam in VIIVIII centuries heretical movement bergvata, differing affinity to the Judaism has extended.

In the Middle Ages there were brisk trading intercourses between Spain and opposite northern coast of Africa which were conducted basically by Jews.

Al-Kairuvani Asserts that at a capture of Bizerte Hasanom in 698 year AD district the Jew operated.

The aggressive tribe daqqatun (from Arabian tughatun, "incorrect"), the Jewish origin, lives in deserts of Africa, in the neighbourhood with Tementitom in Morocco, within an oasis of Tuata.

About the first occurrence of Jews in Berberii there is no exact historical data, they meet here everywhere during an epoch of Romans. Many Arabian tribes there show till now doubtless traces of the Jewish origin; still until now neighbours concern them unfriendly. The Berbersky tribe of Dzharava and a part of a tribe of Nafusa were Jews.

In Tunis that is on a place of Carthago, descendants of the ancient Jewish settlers which traces are appreciable among Moslems-nomadov, have kept the legend as if ancestors have settled them here even long before destruction of I Temple. Existence here the Jewish settlers up the time of Christianity occurrence is doubtless that is proved by monuments from Chamman al-Latif'e and other facts. The first settlers were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding and trade. They shared on clans in which head there were elders, and have been obliged to pay to Rome on 2 . Under the power of Rome, and then vandals (429), Jews of Tunis have reached well-beings, and their number has strongly increased. Even at the time of Majmonida Jews of Tunis did not know about existence of Purima (means, these Jews have lodged here till the Persian time?) and as Karaites actually did not know the Talmud, for what Majmonid criticised them. Morduhaj Noah (17851851) described position of Jews of Tunis as follows:" Despite all constraint, Jews are here at the head of only. In Varvarii they the most outstanding merchants, they are at the head of customs and take over treasury incomes. In their hands export of many products and monopoly of different branches of trade, the control over a mint and stamping; they served local aristocrats as suppliers of jewels and valuable things, consist their financiers, secretaries and translators ".

Tangiers Jews lived in settlement of Phoenicians, and then Carthaginians from Antiquity.

Even in such country far from Israel as Morocco, Jews, according to legends, have lodged during an epoch of I Temple constructed by Solomonom approximately in X century BC and destroyed in 586 BC At this particular time the Phoenician colonies which later have passed under the power of Carthago have been based on the North African coast, which itself was a colony of Phoenicians.

Very ancient origin Jews of Algeria, even after the violent reference in Islam, were available militant nomads Karaites, living in area Vargly. Probably, their descendants were so-called Bahus which lived in east part of Algeria up to the newest time. The Jewish merchants in Algeria traded in Sudanese gold and other goods; they were engaged also in a slave-trade.

Phoenicians mastered not only the North Africa, but also Spain. Here again history repeats itself: with the end of Antiquity, the message on Phoenicians disappear, but whence there are in the big weight Jews. Still king Rekard in IV century violently christened 90 000 Jews. In 1490 in Castile was 8 million inhabitants, from which 800 000 Jews (on S.M.Dubnovu 1 million)! Number expelled in 1492 consider nearby 300 000. In such cities as Toledo, Tudela, Lusena and Zhirona the Jewish population made the majority. It is considered that now, thanking Sephardi Jews, accepted Christianity, the Jewish roots are available more than for 40 % of the population of Spain, historian Shaj Shemer, the president of the centre of culture of the Spanish Jews is convinced of Madrid.

In the Middle Ages practically in all Spanish cities there were quarters where there lived Jews. Many these quarters have remained till now in an invariable kind though Jews there do not live for a long time.

According to tradition, Jews have lodged in Spain during an epoch of Navuhodonosora or even Solomona, that is during colonisation by its Phoenicians. In the Bible Spain was designated by Tarshish. It is known that Phoenicians supported the trading intercourses in which Jews participated also with Tarshishom. It is considered that the prophet of the Ion these ancient people of Spain. About Spain (Sefarade) are told also by prophet Avdy. There is a legend that gate in Hram Solomona have been covered by the gold brought with Tarshisha (Spain).

As tells Flores, still BC Jews lived in Spain. The Jewish coins found in ancient Taragone, specifies in early settlement there Jews. The tombstone has been found in Northern Spain with the Jewish, Greek and Latin inscriptions of Jew Bellioze. Ibn-Daud and Abrabanel were proud of the origin from Davidov's house; their ancestors have lodged during immemorial times in vicinities of Luseny, Seville and Toledo.

Toledo, under legends, has been constructed by the Jews expelled by Navuhodonosor; the name of Toledo (at Arabs and Jews of Tolaitola) reminded Jewish taltela exile, wandering or Toledot (tjldot generations). Itshak Abravanel has specified in the comment to the Bible that the Jews belonging to knees of Iehudy and Binjamin, have lodged in Toledo soon after falling of I Temple, that is in VI century BC Toledo had for exiles as though value of new Jerusalem, and Jews, in imitation, have based round it cities with the same names and in the same distance, as from Jerusalem.

IV Toledsky cathedral (633) has forbidden to appoint those who occurs from Jews, on official posts. From acts of kings Vestgots appears that in VIVII centuries Jews lived both in the Toledo, and in its vicinities. Lukas from the Thuja, wrote that from the end of VII century Jews have organised plot for the purpose of country destruction Vestgots by means of Islam. XVII Toledsky cathedral (694), has accused Jews of Vizigotsky kingdom that they together with the coreligionists in Africa have made plot about destruction of the Christian country. Moslems managed to take Toledo (apprx. 712) thanks to the help of its Jewish population. Ibn Hajan assures that Jews have opened Tariku of a collar of Toledo, capital Vestgots kingdoms. Jews lived in 2 quarters, and from time to time their number exceeded 10 thousand persons (about third of all population of a city).

The Spanish cities of Eskaluna, Makveda, Iopes and Atseke have been constructed in memoirs on the Palestinian cities of Askalon, Maked, Iopp and Azek.

The city of Taragona to a capture its Arabs was called as the Jewish city.

About Zaragosa there was a fortress which during the Arabian epoch was called "Ruta al Jahud". Jews lived In Zaragosa in the first centuries AD when it was the Roman fortress Caesarea-August.

The city of Grenada (Andalusia the south of Spain, in the territory colonized by Phoenicians still to Gamilkara Barki), under messages of Muslim authors, has been based by Jews, and Garnatat was called it is scarlet-jahud, Christians named Grenada "Villa de Judios". Under legends of the Spanish Jews, some inhabitants of Judea have lodged in Grenada during an epoch of the Babylon Captivity, that is at the time of the Babylon military campaigns on the West because of what Phoenicians left the native land and departured in Tarshish (Spain).

The city of Lusena located nearby to Grenada has been occupied exclusively by Jews!

Seville (the southwest of Spain), based by Phoenicians (which its Gispalis named), was known under a name of "a city of Jews" (villa de judios). Jews on have lodged in it soon after destruction of I Temple (VI century BC), and are mentioned by VII century AD when it belonged Vestgots. Having occupied Seville in 712 year, Arabs have generated special division into which Jews entered only for protection of a city and its vicinities. At a dynasty Omejjadov (7561023 years) the community of Seville was one of the largest in Spain. Jews living in Seville were engaged in crafts (they actually posessed monopoly for dyeing of fabrics), trade and medicine, that is Phoenicians were engaged in what.

Located in vicinities of Seville Aznalfarache, Aznalkazar and especially Paterna were called Aldeas de los judios (the Jewish settlements).

Jews of island Majorca have received as a present from king Aragony Jacob (Jaime), won this island, different "alquerias" settlements or the villages which were called almudeynas de los Judios.

Phoenicians have based Barcelona (it is named in honour of Galmikara Barki Barkino-Barsino-Barselona) which Jews have helped Arabs to win from what it is visible that they have lodged there for a long time. The place where there was a Jewish cemetery, still is called Montjuich (the Jewish mountain), and the main street in old Jewish quarter Calle del Cal.

Carthago in Spain will mention some times in the Babylon and Jerusalem Talmuds as a residence of some amoraevs (founders of Gemary).

Jews lived from time immemorial in the Cordoba based by Phoenicians in a quarter "Juderia" which gate were called "Bab al Jahud". At these gate, after known among Moslems under the name "Bab al Huda", Jews conducted extensive trade in silk products and other goods. Cordoba is mentioned in the treatise of Iebamot (115). According to the Arabian legend, Jews lived in Cordoba to its gain in 711 year Moslems who have charged them city protection.

Moslems have entrusted a citadel of Garnatah to protection of Jews, and such practice became almost universal in the subsequent wars; when Moslems grasped a city, it remained on care of Jews (Ahmed Mohammed Al-Makkari).

The author Stories of Muslim dynasties Ahmed Mohammed Al-Makkari wrote to Spain that Moslems found among trophies in Andaluzii during its gain, for example the table of Solomona which Tarik Zejad has found in a temple in Toledo, and other things from Jerusalem still epoch of Navuhodonosora.

The Jewish city of Grenada is in to a Phoenician colony of Malaki. Seville is in area where on southern slopes of the Moraine Phoenicians extracted copper, silver, lead and gold, at the rivers Betis (Guadalquivir), near to the city of Ilipy which had a fight of Romans to Carthaginians. In a mouth of Betisa there was port Tartess, near to Cadiz. , once the Jewish city, is halfway between Grenada and Cordoba, Grenada and Seville.

In Carthago there was an institute Council of Thirty, the self-government institutions of Jews of Aragon had the same name.

The Jewish city of Grenada is close to a Phoenician colony of Malaki. Seville is in area where on southern slopes of the Moraine Phoenicians extracted copper, silver, lead and gold, at the rivers Betis (Guadalquivir), near to the city of Ilipy which had a fight of Romans to Carthaginians. In a mouth of Betisa there was port Tartess, near to Cadiz. Once the Jewish city of Lusena, is halfway between Grenada and Cordoba, Grenada and Seville.

In Carthago there was an institute Council of Thirty, the self-government institutions of Jews of Aragon had the same name.

In Malake which were an old Phoenician colony, Jews lived since ancient times.

In Aragonia (a province in a northwest part of Spain) Jews also are mentioned at Moslems. In Zaragosa (till 1118 were in hands of moors), Hake, Gueske, Barbastro, Daroke, Taratsone, Kalatajude, the Monodream, Leride and some other cities Jews lived already long since, subordinates to special laws (fueros). In Aragonii there were even Jews tamers of lions.

The capital of Spain Madrid, Madzhirit which have developed round a Mauritian fortress, not only had the Jewish community even before capture of a city at Arabs (1083), but Jews also lived and in the neighbouring villages one of which carried the name Is scarlet-luden (from the Arabian is scarlet-jahudijin Jews).

In Tortoze (in Catalonia) the Jewish population was since Rome.

There is a legend that in Murviedro (a city in Valencia) have found a tombstone with the Jewish inscription about burial of the dignitary sent to Spain by Jewish tsar Amatsiej.

Sicily island on which Phoenicians have located before Greeks and which before I Punic war almost completely belonged to Carthago, on it under word Giudei some districts, and according to a legend are known, Palermo, capital of Sicily, Tsefo, has been based by grandson Isava; the Sicilian inhabitants speak found in XII and XV centuries the ancient inscriptions mentioning Tsefo as the chief of a tower in Polermo and testifying residing at Palermo of Jews. On Plutarhu, cvestr Sicilies, Kvint Tsetsily Niger, accuser Verresa, was the released slave-Jew. The Jew was and Tsetsily from Galakty in Sicily in I century BC From an epoch of Roman empire remained inscriptions according to which the Jewish community in Sirakuzah has constructed a synagogue. Letters of daddy Grigory of I period of 591-599 years contain data concerning the Jewish communities in Palermo and Dzhirdzhenti and communities of Samaritans in Catania and Sirakuzah. In view of the promise of daddy Grigory I to hand over to the Jews who have accepted Christianity on favourable terms the earth in rent in Sicily it is a lot of Jews in Dzhirdzhenti have expressed readiness to be christened. In 596 year, we learn from the letter of this daddy, Samaritans in Catania owned slaves which cut off. Ibn-Haukal ( century) mentions the Jewish quarter in Palermo. In the city of Agrigent belonging to Carthago the Jewish community is fixed at the time of all the same daddy Grigory (590601 years).

The Balearic islands occupied by Phoenicians, instead of the last become occupied to one of kinds of the Spanish Jews. Jews lived on the Balearic islands not later than II century AD Presence of Jews on island Menorka near Malorki it is authentically known about 418 years: lead tablets IV or V century with an inscription of Shmuel Hagi (or Haggaj) are found. Here there was 1st historically fixed case of a violent christening in 418 year in Magone a chief town of Minorki Descendants of christened Jews Chuetas live till now on this island.

Cyprus also was colonized by the Phoenicians at one time dominating over this island, during too time we know that during the Second Judaic war it was temporarily supervised by the risen Jews.

Island Dzherba at coast of Tunis the typical example proving identity of Jews and Phoenicians for Jews living on Dzherbe considered that have lodged on it at the time of tsar Solomona, and in 70 year AD, after destruction of II Temple, the family of priests running from Jerusalem has brought with itself one of a gate of the Temple which have been then built in a building of a synagogue, erected in village Jara Zagira.

Jews have started to lodge in Portugal not later than I century AD. The conqueror and its first king Affonso Genrikes (1139-1185) has found Jews in Santareme (where there was the oldest in Portugal a synagogue), Lisbon and Bezhe; according to Gerkulano, it has found even villages and places, entirely or mostly occupied by Jews. In 1249-1250 under the power of the Portuguese crown have passed area of Algarvi with the considerable Jewish population concentrated in the cities of Evoras, Bezha, the Headlight, etc. By the end of XIII century, even before Exile from Spain, in Portugal was about 40 thousand Jews. Portugal named al-Gabrija, that is the country of Jews.

It is even more that Jews and Phoenicians one people, are proved on an example of cities of Israel, after all Jerusalem a Phoenician city. Such examples it is possible to result as much as necessary esteem in the Short Jewish encyclopaedia of article about cities. We take Adullam a Phoenician city in Judea, having the prince, taken by Jesus Navinom. Then Adullam has been already populated with Jews and the Phoenicians who have accepted a Judaism.

Joseph Flavy spoke about high number of Jews in the same Lebanon (War 7:43) also. Jews of the Shooting gallery have lifted mutiny at a campaign of Persians to Byzantium; as well Arabs, having taken hold of Tripoli (Lebanese), have charged protection of port to garrison from local Jews! Manufacturing and export of products from glass (it was traditional Phoenician manufacture), and also import in the countries of Levant of spices and flax from Maghrib and Egypt were the main employment of Jews there.

Here that Veniamin Tudelsky speaks about the Dash: In this beautiful city to 400 Jews; between them it is a lot of scientists , and at the head of them: the river of Efraim from Egypt, the judge, rabbi Meir from Carcassonne and rabbi Avraam, the head of all community. Local Jews have own ships, and among them there are the masters developing the best glass, known under the name , very valued everywhere.

In Carthago the seal with an ancient Jewish inscription is set.

Africa (Carthago) is mentioned there where it is a question of 10 Knees which expelled from Palestin by assyrians and have moved in it. Veniamin Tudelsky considered Tunis identical with Hanesom, Isaii. According to the legend of Sabta in Africa has been constructed by Simom, the son Aching; to this city, tells the legend, Ioab, David's main military leader reached.

The Jewish colonists in Borione (Carthago) carry pioneer settlements of Jews in this country to an epoch of Solomona which as if itself has built a synagogue that which in VI century has been turned into church by emperor Justinianom.

The city of Meknes in the northwest Morocco, between Fes and Rabat, the typical proof of identity of Jews and Phoenicians, after all here the Jewish settlement ascends by the pre-Islamic period: at excavation of Roman Volubilisa near Meknes has been found out inscriptions in a Hebrew and the synagogue rests.

The word Africa (Afer), the initial name of Phoenician colonies round Carthago, ascends, probably, to a name of one of descendants of Avrahama and his wife Ketury, Efera which has lodged here (Avraham Zakuto; Ibn-Idrisi).

In the Western Africa there were legends about the Jewish kingdoms of Lamlam and Ganata, and at coast the Jewish merchants did business, some Jewish customs observe tribes of Ibos in Biafe, group "sons of Efraima" in Nigeria, Mandinogo in Senegal, in Ghana.

T.Mommzen considered word Afer, Africa derivative of a word "Jews"; to it it is possible to add the suspicious name of the river Iber to Spain and the name Iberia.


Historian Gerodot: Phoenicians and the Syrians living in Palestin, recognise that borrowed this custom (trimming) Egyptians. However all Phoenicians who communicate with Elladoj, already any more do not imitate Egyptians and do not cut off the children. He knows , inhabitants of Syria Palestinian, based a temple in Kiefer.

Same Gerodot writes about Phoenicians that they profits on so-called Red sea to Our (Mediterranean) sea and have lodged in the country where and now still live. But after all from Red sea Jews have come also!

Gerodot in VII book actually directly names Jews (the Palestinian Syrians) Phoenicians, and again repeats that those profits from Red sea: These , by their words, in the ancient time lived on Red sea, and subsequently have moved therefrom and nowadays live at the Syrian coast. This part of Syria and all area up to Egypt is called as Palestin.

Prophet Iezekiil directly speaks about an origin of Jews from Phoenicians: the Jew, and mother the Phoenician was the father of Israel.

Historian Plutarh writes that Tifon (Baal-Seth) after battle of 7 days sought safety in flight on a donkey, has escaped and became the father of Jerusalem and Judea. Historian Manefon hints at honouring in Avarise, capital Hyksos, adherents of Moiseja Tifona (Vaala-Setha).


Historian Gekatej Abdersky as exiles from Egypt, unites Jews with the Phoenicians who have gone to Greece under leadership by Kadma and Danaja: and then primordial inhabitants of this country (Egypt) have judged what not to see it the end to these disasters, while will not banish foreigners. Strangers have immediately expelled. As tell, the most outstanding and active of them have united and have gone in Elladu and to any else countries after the glorified leaders, among which Danaj and Kadm were considered as the most well-known. But the majority of the people has gone to exile in the earth named nowadays Judea, located not far from Egypt and in those days absolutely deserted. The person by name of Moisej far surpassing others both wisdom, and courage conducted immigrants. Having taken hold of the earth, it besides other cities has based also most well-known nowadays, named Gierosolimy most well-known nowadays.

Kadm is a son of Phoenician tsar Agenora, the founder of Thebes and the inventor of the Greek alphabet. Danaj the son of the Egyptian tsar It is white, brother Agenora. Escaping from the brother of the Egypt with whom together rules Libya, it has escaped with 50 daughters to Rhodes, and therefrom to Argos where became the tsar.

Hence, Gekatej Abdersky directly considers that Phoenicians and Jews one people!!!


Approximately too that Gekatej Abdersky informs also Manefon. It, considering Hyksos as Phoenicians, says that they ran to Jerusalem. It has occurred at brothers of Danae and Egypt.

Manefon writes that Hyksos move to Judea, he attributes it also the basis of Jerusalem from what it is visible that it identified Hyksos with Jews.

Historian Afrikan: "V the dynasty in Egypt was Hyksos. They were Phoenicians".

Phoenicians have been mentioned in shape "k-n-i" on the Egyptian obelisk of times II of the dynasty, found out on Sinai, one of the first tribes hapiru (Jews).

Many tombs Hyksos remind burial places of a southern part of "Palestin".

Historian J.B.Tsirkin agrees that Hyksos Phoenicians, having noticed that the majority of names Hyksos western Semitic, hence Hyksos natives of Palestin, and Pharaoh Jahmos after exile Hyksos, continuing or finishing with them war has fallen upon Palestinian (Phoenician) Sharuhen.

Identity acknowledgement Hyksos Phoenicians of Jews is Joseph's life of son Jacob which, apparently, combined 2 posts: "governor" and "the chief of granaries".

It is obvious that Hyksos, Phoenicians and Jews the same people.


In a Phoenician Jewish origin Hyksos specifies also extended in their board in Egypt a cult of Anatu which temple was in Tanise. It was honoured in the end of II millenium BC by Jews of Palestin: judge Shamgar is named by son Anat (Anatu). As it was told, Jews of Elefantiny too honoured this goddess. At Hyksos Phoenician cults of Reshefa and Vaala also honoured by Jews have got into Egypt also.

The Greek author V AD Heril from Samos, writing about the Greek-Persian war, mentioned among the Persian army and Jews, saying that Jews speak in Phoenician language.

According to Filonu from Bibla Phoenicians considered Judea as the son of Supreme god.

God Jevo was especially esteemed in Berute. The name of this god obviously reminds antiquated Jahve. Their employment were similar also: Jevo rules by the rough sea, and Jahve originally was god of a storm.

The known opponent of Christianity of Tsels speaks about Jews and Phoenicians as about something the general, for example: And everything that is told or not told in Judea on their way as it still now usually in Phoenicia and in Palestin, is at them it is considered wonderful and immutable. I could tell about a way of a prediction in Phoenicia and Palestin which to me should be heard and which I have studied. There are many kinds of a prophecy; the most perfect at local people.

As to prophets the identity of this institute both at Phoenicians is valid and at Jews it is caused by an outlook generality: Phoenician, as well as Jews, considered that the life is completely defined by supernatural forces and consequently the oracle is necessary for a future prediction. From texts of Ugarita it is known about the prophet who was taking part in ceremony of celebrating of the new Moon. It is known and that governors of Ugarita Keret and Daniel before the beginning of important issues prayed in a sanctuary, also Solomon in Gavaone precisely also arrived: the tsar in Gavaon Also has gone to bring there a victim for there there was a main altar. One thousand was uplifted by Solomon on that altar. 

At prophet Iezekiilja the world tree has appeared in an image of the Lebanese cedar growing in the Divine garden (Iez. 31). Prophet Isaija believed that day will come, times will die, and the glory of Lebanon with its cedars and cypresses approaches to New Jerusalem (Is. 60, 13). Only before God the Lebanese cedar is powerless. The voice of the Lord breaks cedars; the Lord breaks cedars Lebanese (the Psalm 28, 5).

It is known that as though not Jewish country visited by Jesus Shooting gallery and Sidon limits where the pagan asks it to cure its scatter-brained daughter were unique, on what the Christianity founder has answered that has come only to Jews, instead of to dogs. It would Seem, if it so what for it in general has gone there? Means, cities of Phoenicia were same Jewish, as well as cities of Judea?

By the way, the myth about Jesus Christ revival has obviously Phoenician origin: it is similar to death and awakening of Tammuz, the Adonis, Eshmun and Melkart. From Eshmunom Jesus connects also doctoring. (To god to doctor Eshmunu especially worshipped in Carthago, according to the Bible God is the doctor of the Jewish people [the Outcome, 15, 26]).

However and in the Old testament we see the same motives. So myths of Ugarita of the goddess of the Sun and Anat bury Baala, accompanying it is grief on died god, it is similar to the Bible where the Israeli peasants, paying , say that they pay to died god.


Inhabitants of Babylon did not separate Phoenicia from countries Amurru (Palestin).

Egyptians Syria and Palestin named the country Chorus.

When Antioh concluded the alliance with Ptolemeem and has married to it the daughter Cleopatra, in the form of the given has conceded Kelesiriju, Phoenicia, Samaria and Judea.

has constructed a city under the name the Shooting gallery.

 Known churchman Epifany Cyprian was the Phoenician, and on religion at first the Jew, and already then the Christian. Hence, Phoenicians judaized?

In the Bible it is told that Isav, brother Iakova, took the Phoenician in the wife.

Archeological finds in Cyrene and Tripolitania testify to commercial relations between Israel and Libya even before the Babylon capture. The city of Tripoli (in Libya), based by Phoenicians in VII century BC, on the Roman card of IV century AD had settlement with the name Stsina, a place of residing of imperial Jews.


Trade, the silk industry, manufacture of a purple paint was considered as employment of Phoenicians.

The Shooting gallery was famous for sea trade, for example. However in the Middle Ages Phoenicians are not mentioned, but Jews of Lebanon are famous for the products from silk and glass, were there and Jews-ship-owners. The silk industry and purple products from Thebes (Greece) Jews used glory in all Byzantian empire. Value of Jews for the silk industry proves to be true that the Neapolitan king Rozher has caused from the Byzantian empire of Jews-experts for improvement of manufacture of silk in Southern Italy. The traveller of XVII century Taverne tells that in the Chest, in Persia, the population, generally Jewish, is extremely skilful in silks; their belts were especially beautiful.

It is similarly possible to speak about trade. So in Ostii trading harbour and military port of Rome in a mouth of Tiber some epitaphs in the Greek and Latin languages, testifying have been opened that in republic and empire here there was the Jewish community occupying high enough public and economic situation. According to the French historian Edmona Ponona, already during an epoch Karolingov Latin words mercator (merchant) and judeus (Jew) were synonyms because Jews were unique merchants at that time. Binjamin from Tudely informed on Jews-ship-owners in the Dash. In southern France (especially in Marseilles) the Jewish ship-owners were known since the Byzantian epoch. Jews-morehody in the Late Middle Ages are noted in Aragon, Barcelona, in Portugal, on the Balearic islands. In the majority of the Mediterranean ports the Jewish merchants, brokers and insurers operated.

It is characteristic that in the largest port of antique time Alexandrias was two Jewish quarters. Here Jews took part in trade and navigation (it is similar the Jewish profiteer, certain Danoula whom it is mentioned in one of the Egyptian papyruses) and especially were engaged in crafts (Philo, In Flaccum, passim).

In Italy in the heart of Empire there were many Jews poor (Martsial, XII, 57), foretellers (Juvenal, VI, 542; it is similar Procopius, Bell. Goth., I, 9), sellers (Maartsial, I, 41), weavers, manufacturers of tents, sellers of purple, butchers (Garrucci, Cimi-terio Randanini, 44), holders of taverns (Ambrosius, De fide, III, 10, 65), singers, actors (Josephus, Vita, 3), artists (Garrucci, Diss. Arch., II, 154), jewellers (R. E. J., XIII, 57 Naron), doctors (Celsus, De medic., V, 19, 22; Corp. inscr. lat., IX, 94) and writers (Tsetsily, Joseph Flavy), not including preachers, lawyers and seminary students (Mattatija ben-Geresh, etc.). In the end of IV century in some provinces of Southern Italy the higher class of citizens of many cities consisted entirely or generally of Jews that serves as the proof of well-being of the last (Cod. Theodos., XII, 1, 158).

The author to III book of oracles of Sivilly, addressing to "the selected people" (Jews), speaks: "Any country and any sea it is full them (Jews)" (Sibyll., III, 271; compare I . ., 15) confirming Joseph Flavija's words and Filona from Alexandria about world diaspora which it is possible to explain only participation of Jews in world trade, that is that they and Phoenicians - one people.


One more, but the most important question whether is receivers, successors of glory of the Phoenician people? About it do not write, nevertheless, receivers are, they exist and now for it is known from the Bible that the whole Phoenician tribes, like Gallilejcs, Idumejcs and Iturejcs addressed in the Judaism, hence, mixed up with Jews, marriages of Jews with Phoenicians, like the daughter of Phoenician Shua whom Judas has taken to itself in marriage and which has regretted a seed of Onan are known.

Various Phoenicians are mentioned among Israel at the time of the Outcome: for example Hobab was father-in-law Moiseja. In the book of Ezry it is said that Jews began to conclude marriages with Phoenicians (Ezra, 9, 1, 2). The book of Ruf. In the Talmud Antibla (the name is spoilt, but any Baal obviously appears in last part) is told about family accepted a Judaism, living in Jerusalem in I century BC. Joseph, the father of the Judaism of the Talmud, occurs from Sizara, the Phoenician military leader killed at the time of judges, and from the Jewish mother. Other Jewish hero Simon the Bar-giora too the descendant of the Phoenicians who have accepted a Judaism.

Such characters of the Bible specify in mixture of Jews and Phoenicians, as Jael which have killed Sisru (Judges, 4:1722) also. Many researchers consider its history as the certificate of formation of an ancient Israeli generality: in process of strengthening of the union of tribes of Israel Kenits both other nomadic and seminomadic clans which were in dependence from Phoenician cities-states, came over to the side of Jews and in due course joined in their generality.

From here, as the Author, and such phrases from the Bible, as Iez considers. 28:22: Also tell: here I on you, Sidon, also will become famous among you and learn that I am a Lord when I will make court over it and I will show in it My sanctity, that is in Sidon will be preached about God.

In antique time communities accepted the Judaism (Cyrill are mentioned formed in Phoenicia and Palestin. Alexandr., in Patrologiae, LXVIII, 282).

At last Aziz governor Emesy (Phoenicia) which was thanks to marriage in related relations to a family of the Tyrant is known.

The Jewish law allowed to marry "the fine captive", without doing distinction depending on from what people it is taken. Phoenicians could be these captives basically. That circumstance is characteristic that marriage of tsar David with the daughter of tsar Talmaj from Geshur (II Samuil, 3, 3) anywhere does not cause disapproval. At occurrence of Ezry (458 BC) Jews entered mixed marriages with foreigners. The best and most respectable Jewish families set the lower class of the population an example in this direction (Ezra, 9, 12). Position has been put forward that since Assyrian tsar Sanheriba the people have mixed up with each other and national features in sense ethnologic have disappeared, and all, hence, can be accepted the Jewish people as accepted a Judaism under a transition condition in Iudejstvo (Mishna, Iadaim, IV, 4).

Prophet Ezdra reproaches Jews that those, including priests, "have not separated" from people of Canana because took their daughters for itself and the sons.

The author of known work about anti-Semitism in Ancient Mire Solomon Lure, in general considers that at a gain of Canaan Jews was not that genocide which is described in the Bible; it is the late insert serving by a consolation to Jews, suffering from oppression of pagans.

Historian J.Tsirkin too considers data on destruction of inhabitants of Canaan exaggerated: Settling on the grasped earths, Jews aspired not to expel any more the former population, and to subordinate him to themselves, forcing to pay in taxes (Iud. I, 2833).

Prophet Iezekiil grieves over capital of Phoenicia.

The historian G.Vels in "history Bases" wrote: In process of easing of political force of Jews after Carthago and the Shooting gallery have sunk into a non-existence, and Spain became a province of Roman empire, the Jewish dream of world supremacy more and more expanded. There are no doubts that the Phoenicians as the fates decree scattered across Spain, Africa and the Mediterranean and speaking on the language, similar on Jewish, and lost former political force; became the new turned Jews.


Coincidence of customs of Jews and Phoenicians:

1) God favourite by Phoenicians the Adonis has been killed by a wild boar that explains an interdiction is pork. Anyway, it did not eat in Sidon. Sidon an ordinary Phoenician city if there did not eat pork, means, it did not eat in all Phoenicia.

2) In the same Sidon the most ancient known image of Magen-Davida on the press of VII century is revealed BC, belonging Iehoshua nobody Asajahu.

3) About trimming at Phoenicians told Gerodot. Historian Filon from Bibl says that Crones has made to itself trimming and has forced it to make others.

4) Months of a Phoenician calendar Etanim, Bul, Faalot and others, before acquaintance to the Babylon calendar are mentioned in a Torah as Jewish.

5) Avraam good luck conclude a precept, the union it (is smoothfaced), in what B.A.Turaev has seen analogy to a myth about the basis of Berita-Bejruta a married couple "Eliun, Elion" ("Highest") and "Take" ("union") that can be an embodiment of the special contract concluded between god and people ("brit", the Hebrew; britum, akkads.).

6) Causes strong interest and a name of Tarshish twice mentioned in the Bible: in the book of Esfiri (1:14) Tarshish one of seven approached to tsar Ahashveroshu dignitaries of Persia and the Mussel, in I book of the Chronicle (7:10) the ancestor of one of clans of a tribe of Binjamin. It is possible to assume that so named those who came from the Spanish colonies of Phoenicians.

Not only Solomon, but also other Jewish tsars participated in trade with Tarshishom (Spain). So, at the time of Ahazii, the son and successor Ahaba on the Israeli throne (89796 BC) y the Israeli kingdom there was a merchant marine fleet which was reaching Tarshisha and taking out therefrom precious metals (I Kingdoms, 22, 50); with its ships also the ships of Iosafata, the tsar Judaic, apparently, floated, for what last has drawn upon itself(himself) anger of prophet Eliezera from Mareshi (II Chronicle, 20, 3637).

7) Jews contrary to conjectures do not eat blood of Christian babies, meat should will separate from blood. Michael Zilberman writes that the use by Phoenicians of blood in food too was forbidden (blood belonged only to Great god-father, the lord of the earth, water and an underworld). Like ancient Jews, Phoenicians also correlated blood to soul: blood of Akhata Has spilt, and there was it a soul is told for example in the epos of Ugarita about Daniel.

8) The sacred prostitution connected with Phoenician Astart (Malkat-Gashomaim of Jews), has been extended and in Judea and Israel, against it prophets combated. Moisej has forbidden trade in daughters (do not sell the daughters that the earth has not become covered by a stain and evil spirits, the book of Levit. I), but despite it, sacred prostitution took place even at the time of Makkaveev. Jews participated with pagans Phoenicians in erotic holidays at Bet-Eskimota (the book of Moiseja IV, the chapter XXV). Prophet Baruch speaks: Along streets the women surrounded with cords sit, and burn aromas. That from them which is invited for copulation with the passer-by, brags then to the neigbour who was not seeing as it has untied the belt (Baruch, VI).

9) The monotheism has developed probably in due course at Phoenicians also as well as at Jews: between Gannibalom and Phillip Carthaginians swear the contract a certain Deity of Carthaginians (fiaiuovoc Kappi6ovicov), the Roman emperors Phoenicians of Septimy Sever and Geliogabal esteemed uniform God-sun who honoured also Julian the Turncoat who had ancestor-Phoenician Gannibaliana. Gradually in Phoenicia the word of Baal has changed sense from concept "god", it as actually "lord" became citizens, civil collective for example b'l sdon (citizens Sidon).

Already in theology of Filona from Bibla and Sunhanjaton (last lived to or during Trojan war) actually is not present belief that is a lot of gods, this belief was, but is rethought, now gods cultural heroes mortal people began to admit.

10) Phoenician god Melkart who as is considered by Tsirkin had solar character, has analogy to bible Samsonom and god of Babylon Gilgamesh.

11) God of Jews and Phoenicians same whether it clearly from words of prophet Amos speaking on behalf of God "I has deduced Israel from the earth Egyptian, how from Crete and Aramecs from Sura?" (Amos, 9, 7).

If to speak about prophet Amos its phrase "I have exterminated its fruit above and its roots below" meets on an inscription of Phoenician tsar Eshmunazara (a line 1112).


Jews and Phoenicians had same customs:

The son-in-law lives some time in a family of the father-in-law.

Carthaginians released beards and covered heads with a hat, reminding tarboosh. Too we see and on images of Phoenician seamen.

As well as Phoenicians, Jews once made a sacrifice to God (moloh), teaching Moiseja, God proclaims Give Me the first-born from your sons (the Outcome, 22:29). It is known that tsar Ahaz (741725 BC) a minute of danger has sacrificed the son (II Kingdoms, 16, 3). It has erected set of images of Baala in a valley Ginnom, made a sacrifice and arranged with it an incense (II Chronicles, 28, 14), on the Temple roof has constructed a building named Alijath Achaz, in which religious sacraments in honour of "heavenly troops" stars and planets (II Kingdoms, 23, 12) were made; at last, it had been built in Jerusalem a huge sundial (Isaija, 38, 8) Other tsar, son Hizkii, Menasha (Manassija, 695640 years BC) Has balanced paganism with the Judaism, idols of Astarte and Vaalu were on the square the Jerusalem Temple, in a valley of Ginoma the altar on which Iegove of small children sacrificed, in the country, towered. This ceremony operated at his son Amone and proceeded in the beginning of board Ioshijahu which, however, has definitively eradicated these and other pagan rituals (II . 23:10). Words of Ieremii (7:31), speaking on behalf of Jahve: Have arranged heights of Tofeta that in a valley of sons of Hinnoma to burn sons and the daughters on fire that I did not rule and that To me on heart did not come, sound as polemic with those who adhered to similar views. As we see, all as at Phoenicians who too were not unanimous concerning this ominous ceremony when in Carthago it was usual, in Sura (capital of Phoenicia) it have already refused.

Michael Zilberman marked: At excavation of the earth of Canaan archeologists have found out a considerable quantity of the scorched children's skeletons in various places of burial places. Burial of burnt children is frequent was carried out in the form of a burial place of urns with ashes (often with religious inscriptions of dedication) in caves As a result of excavation of an ancient Phoenician temple in Gezere, in one of caves in its territory, the numerous children's corpses buried in jugs are found out. To all these children was no more than 8 days, it is similar "the First-born from the sons give To me... 7 days let will be it at the mother, and in 8 day (without trimming) give it To me".

As well as Jews, Phoenicians do not name the son a name of the father, but, as well as Jews, could name the child a name of the died relative, for example a name of the grandfather.

Sending by Carthaginians of the tenth part of the income in a temple Sura, is similar the same gathering at Jews in favour of the Jerusalem Temple.

In Carthago there were sacrifices ybl that as considered I.S.Shifman, can speak about presence of the custom similar to so-called Anniversary of Jews.

In Carthago there were sacrifices "ybl" that as considered I.S.Shifman, can speak about presence of the custom similar to so-called " ybele" of Jews.

Holiday of Shabbat: certificates on this holiday contain at Tita Libya which informs that during war between Rome and Carthago in 211 BC the Carthago commander Gazdrubal has sent to Neron (the commander of the Roman armies) with the request to postpone negotiations for tomorrow: at Carthaginians-de it is reserved day, forbidden for any important issues. Today by historians it is shown that here it was a question of Saturday, a bottom in which it was impossible to do any affairs. So has understood, for example, I.S.Shifman (Korablev M. I of "Gannibal", M. 1981).

The hint on sanctity of Saturday gives also one text from Ugarit where it is written that the Ale for 7th day has taken pity over Denelom / Daniel and granted it the son.

Jews had a Saturday year when rest should be given the earth, agricultural works stop, crops and a harvest, gathering of fruits etc. are not made (Lev.25.3-4; 26.3435,43). In a myth of Ugarit about Daniel is narrated about how the Pas-corduroy road, sister Akhata, a priestess-rapaitka "comprehending will of gods", mourns to Ball as "the death threatens god to Ball upon termination of (everyone) seven years", and with it drought and hunger arrival: "there will be no dew! The rain will not be! Chasm sources will not be in full swing... But to Ball will return... (... Will sprout a young stalk on a bed".

In the letter from Ugarits it is found: give those 140 coins which still remain from your money, but do not demand percent, we after all both noble people, it is similar to a fragment from Vtorozakonija XXIII, 20 (it is similar: XXV, 3637): to the Foreigner give to growth, and to your brother do not give to growth.

From the same texts of Ugarita we learn that the imperial tenth part of the income the tax to the maintenance of an imperial court yard could be raised, I Samuil is similar. 8:15, 17.

The grief at Jews was expressed in clothes, and in a myth of Ugarit, Daniel as as a sign of grief on killed son Akhatu breaks off the clothes.

Some Phoenician customs are specially forbidden as pagan. So, the ceremony connected with sacred marriage on which cooked a kid in milk is known at Phoenicians. After an establishment , to Jews, therefore, have forbidden to cook a kid in milk of his mother.


This Phoenician city of Ugarit is important that in it have remained tablets with the Phoenician literature. For Bible studying texts which include products religious-mythological ("Ba'al", Ba'al and Anat, Marriage of Nikkal and Ava and others) and istoriko-epic character (History of tsar Kereta, History of the judge of the Tribute-silt, etc.) have special value ; Numerous prayers, hymns, spells, etc. These texts 1 known products such on one of northwest Semitic dialects (according to other researchers, language of Ugarita a dialect of northern Canaan) are found out also and belong by the period to the Bible writing that does by their major source for studying not only the literature of ancient Canaan, but also genesis of the bible literature. In 1930 H.L.Ginzberg and U.Kassuto have begun comparative research and Bibles; , in particular, has come to conclusion that the Bible represents direct continuation and development of literary traditions of Canaan. The concept of Kassuto has laid down in a basis of the Israeli school of studying of the Bible. A number of experts has tended to more radical sight according to which influence of the Phoenician literature on the Bible so is great that last should be considered as a part of the first.

On the rhythmic structure the bible poetry is extremely similar to poetry of Ugarita. Both literatures have wide use of a stylistic principle of parallelism in its different variants is characteristic. Moreover, there is a strong likeness between the semantic steams used for creation . Many set phrases (epic formulas) epos of Ugarita meet in the most ancient prosaic narrations of the Bible (first of all in books Life and Samuila). In the Bible many speech turns, art idioms and tracks, characteristic Ugarit for the literature are found out.

All gods of Ugarits descendants of one god-creator of the Ale, and some constant epithets concerning it, and also to his son Ba'alu, meet in the Bible as epithets of B-hectare of Israel. It is necessary to notice also that in the Bible the myth elements which full version became known from literatures are found out; this myth narrates about struggle of Ba'ala against sea monsters Leviafanom, a dragon directly running and a dragon bent (it is similar the Outcome from Egypt 27:1: that day the Lord will amaze With the sword... Leviafan, a snake directly running, and Leviafan, a snake bent). A.I.Nemirovsky considers that in represented on Phoenician temples curtailed into a circle and devouring own tail of a snake, Jewish Leviafan is guessed.


One more proof of identity of Phoenicians with Jews is fight at Megiddo in 1502 BC Pharaoh Tutmos III has crushed a coalition of 330 princes of Canaan. This fight has occurred till the Outcome, however about it so powerful memoirs have remained that last battle between good and harm will occur in the Armageddon, that is on mountains Megiddos.

Phoenicians have a legend about a fiery bird a Phoenix, dying time in 500 years and rising of ashes again. In the Jewish legends the age in 1000 after which the phoenix burns down is underlined and revives.

Prophet Moisej before dialogue has good luck seen a bush captured by fire, but not the combustible. The similar divine sign is met by us and at Phoenicians in a myth about the Shooting gallery basis where precisely also burnt, but did not burn, an olive. 
At Carthaginians as a kind of suicide and simultaneously as the victim to god has been extended a way to rush to fire, but also has committed suicide having suffered defeat and bible Zamvry, the former chief over half of chariots.

Funeral masks, characteristic for a doleful cult of Phoenicians have been found not only in Carthago and Phoenicia, but also in territory of Palestin.

Jews spoke in language of Canaan. The Hebrew and Phoenician language is same language.

Some "Historians" write that only on a gain of Canaan Jews began to speak in language of Canaan (without resulting it proofs). Not clearly only, why Jews began to speak in language of the people destroyed by them? Anglo-Saxons in the USA or in Australia speak in language of natives?

J.B.Tsirkin has noticed that from an inscription of Maktary about a special category of inhabitants the people living on the earth in submission to a community are seen analogy with so-called "ger" in the Bible. "Gers" at first named the foreigners living on the Jewish earth, Phoenicians. As "ger" began then to mean turned into a Judaism, it is possible to assume that Phoenicians have accepted the Judaism, so, a Phoenician civilisation a part Jewish as inhabitants of Canaan have mixed up with Jews.


Tsirkin has been compelled to recognise a certain communication of Jews with Phoenicians: Presence of the general religious and mythological representations of the most ancient Jews and the people amorejsko-hanaanskogo a cultural circle speaks {...} the general origin {...}. says that Jews from Phoenicians were distinguished by special Jjahve, but difference is not clear in what actually. The special status of Jjahve had and in Take. In Sura Melkart was especially esteemed, in Carthago Baal-Hammon etc. Tsirkin artfully enough (but it is not clear what for) separates Phoenicians from Jews saying that the last are closer to inhabitants of Ugarita, as if those not Phoenicians. He also writes that ostensibly Phoenician priests did not marry, actually it not so. Aherb, high priest Melkarta, was married to Elisse (and was considered as the second person in the state all as at Jews). From Punic inscriptions clearly that priests married priestesses (Tsirkin himself about it writes in other place).

The Jewish Day of expiation of sins when the governor should confess and repent before the high priest, has a parallel with two texts from Ugarita in whom rituals in which the governor in a month Tishri when there comes autumn new year participates are described. In the beginning it makes ritual ablution, then makes sacrifice to gods, begging to protect its people from a distemper and acts of nature. In other text it is told about a victim of expiation.


Compare for example words of one Phoenician tsar: I Admit before my God, the mister and master Bibla that I am guilty and I repent of fulfilment of my sins and 78 psalm from the Bible: How long, My God, you will be incessantly angry . Both there and here, as in the text of the tsar of Moab, people explained the troubles anger of God for sins.


The institute of "judges" competing to a monarchy (suffet) was the general for Jews and Phoenicians.


The concept of the imperial power has been apprehended by Israelis from inhabitants of Canaan (I Samuil. 8). The board of tsars described in this bible text, is similar to a form of government in Canaan of the period of the Israeli gain of Canaan.


John Grej has noted, as God of Phoenicians and God of Jews was the keeper of social values, a tribe.


In I century BC I century AD the Jewish population of Syria quickly increased for the account turned into a Judaism: under certificates of contemporaries, a considerable part of inhabitants of this country, including even some Roman deputies, was under strong influence of the Judaism. Zakonouchiteli Mishny extended to Siriiju number action micvot ha-tlujot ba-arets (` the precepts connected with the sacred earth `). So, as Mishne affirms: The one who buys the land in Syria, is similar to the one who buys it on suburb of Jerusalem (Plaited white bread. 4:11). That is rabbis actually considered Syria as territory of Israel. It is the answer to above brought attention to the question why Jesus come to Israelis has visited and limits Sura.


Jews took part in Phoenician colonisations, especially it concerns Cadiz (Jewish ` sacred `) and Tarshisha. Last in Septuaginte, Targume and in Vulgate is understood as Carthago that though and is not true, proves that in it obviously there lived Jews. So on Targumu Ionatana Tarshish Africa, that is Carthago (I Kingdoms, 22,48; r., 10,9).

One rabbi of III century has interesting words: "From Sura (capital of Phoenicia) to Carthago know all Israel and his father heavenly" (Maine., 110). At excavation in Carthago the Jewish fixtures, on the cemetery located near a city a great number of gravestones with the image of a menorah and with inscriptions in Latin (is more rare in a Hebrew) have been found out. Carthago wise men rabbi Hinna, rabbi Hanan, rabbi Itshak and rabbi Abba are mentioned in the Talmud.

Jews lived in many cities of the Roman province Africa Proprija, in Gamarte, Mars, Gippo-Diarituse (Bizerte), Naro (with ruins of a magnificent synagogue), Simittu, Hadrumetume, Tuzuruse, etc. Here were formed considerable groups turned into a Judaism; some scientists assume that among the last the Phoenicians ethnically close to Jews, and Berbers prevailed. Till IV century the standard of living of Jews of Carthago and other cities of Tunis was high, many Jewish families belonged to the most well-founded social classes. On Dzherbe Jews were engaged in agriculture and agricultural products processing, in other parts of the country, especially in seaports, commerce. Export of grain and olive oil from a province Africa Proprija was under almost complete control of the large Jewish ship-owners living in Rome and united in corporation of ship-owners.

Avraam ibn-Daud has told: "Communities of Israel are disseminated from the Hall on the brink of Maghrib (possibly, the Hall in Tripoli, y Big Syrta) to Tangiers (Morocco) in the beginning of Maghrib; also in the far end of Ifrikii both across all Africa and in Egypt".


The episode is characteristic, when before storm of Jerusalem Tit has arranged meeting with a question what to do with the Temple. According to the available report of meeting (the Roman historian the North) Tit has told: This building the Temple and it should be destroyed. has destroyed a city and the Temple, having kept, however, as earlier Romans in Carthago, only city gate as a punishment symbol for rebelliousness the second Carthago. after suppression the Bar-kohby has made "ploughing" of Jerusalem and Temple territory as in Carthago.

In general, the persistence and  destruction of Tira, Carthago and Jerusalem are very similar.


At excavation strange artefacts have been found in a Phoenician colony of Hadrumet magic tablets with a name of God of Israel, sometimes only with it one, sometimes together with names of other gods. On them it is possible to read, for example: "I conjure you, the devil spirit which is here, a sacred name. This name of Aof, Alaof, Avraam's God, Jao Isaaka, Jao, Aof, Abaof, God of Israel..."

As a result of II Judaic war Libya has become empty that proves an accessory of the most part of its population before this war to Jews.

From "Adversus Judaeos" Tertulliana, is obvious that Jews lived in Carthago, and they got further away on the West. The African Jews are often mentioned in correspondence of Ieronima with Avgustinom; the big Jewish cemetery has been found in Gamarte, near to Carthago. From a gain of Carthago vandals (439) to a capture its Byzantium (533) sacred vessels from the Jerusalem Temple which have been taken away from Rome, were stored in Carthago (Evagrius "Scholasticus" Fr., IV; Procopius, "Bellum Vand.", II, 9). sinian Solomonu has ordered, to the governor of Africa, to alter synagogues in church (Novellae, 37). Solomon, however, it was necessary to run from the risen Africans.

The Jewish imitation Joseph Flaviju Jossippon (I, chapter 2) narrates that Tsefo, son Elifaza and grandson Isava delivered to Egypt as the captive, ran to Carthago where became the military leader. The legend source is unknown, but it reminds the Talmud legend on which Girgishits have come to Africa from Asia that, possibly, is a hint on colonisation of Carthago by the Phoenicians who have left Canaan. Sacred Ieronim also speaks about Gergesaei as about founders of colonies. It is live reminds that inscription which, agrees the Procopy, has been found in Africa and in which Ioshua, the conqueror of Canaan, is named by the robber.

The message the Procopy about robber Ieshua the good proof of that Phoenicians are Jews: contrary to vegetables-historians interpreting its words as memoirs of Carthaginians on the Jews who have expelled them, told Procopies not about Carthaginians (this interpretation the silliest anachronism), and about "Libyans" adopted Phoenician culture. It is visible from words the Procopy: yes, because of "Jesus, son Nava" many people of Canaan migrated through Egypt to Libya, but further is told about their wars with Carthaginians!

Some think that the term Canaan designated Phoenicians of Carthago. Actually it is a question of natives of the North Africa. That Berbers considered as sons of Canaan, the son of the Boor, the son But (this theory Muslim historians and seminary students have picked up), confirms only Jewish influence.

Thus it is necessary to remember that to a victory of fanatical Christianity, Jews was in Africa much more as many at first violently addressed in Christianity, and then in Islam. So, in the Doctrine of new christened Iakova it is described, how in Carthago Jews violently christened at the emperor Armenian Iraklii; the prefect of a province own hands beat on the person the resisting. Or, for example, in the former Roman colony of Fat that near Rabat (Morocco) after the violent reference in Islam in VIIVIII has AD extended centuries heretical movement , secret Jews; the heresy has been eradicated only in XII century AD by severe Almohadami. It is known in the North Africa V century and sect of "skies-inhabitants". Emperor Gonory in the beginning of V century has published against them 2 laws. Inhabitants of heaven also are mentioned in the Code Feodosiya (438), and them usually identify with sect ` fearing heavens ` the Jewish sources. In II century When Almogady which have come from the North Africa, have devastated Spain, thousand Spanish Jews have been compelled to search for a refuge in the North Africa. Telling about this prosecution, Avraam ibn-Daud says that Ibn-Tumart has exterminated all Jews from the Hall, "doomsday", to Almeria in Spain.

From the Gospel we know that apostle Pavel has visited or was going to visit Spain during the travel (the Message to Romans, XV, 24 and 28). It is known that the apostle bore "a good" message only in those places where there lived Jews or adjoined the Judaism. In Elvira's documents of a cathedral (300) many reasonings calling Christians to vigilance concerning Jews. According to the dictionary of Catholic theology, it there was the earliest church cathedral from which disciplinary canons have remained. It was forbidden on pain of exile from a community is together with Jews (a canon 50) and on pain of an excommunication from church to conclude with them marriages or to ask them to bless the future crop (a canon 49). These principles the next centuries will extend across all Christian Europe.


Phoenicians and Jews had a general religion:

Jews honoured Phoenician gods. Already the wife of patriarch Jacob Rahil escaping from the father takes away with itself idols. In reign of Rehabeama Jews constructed stone sculptures of Baala and Ashery "under each green tree". The cult of Ashery extends at Jews since an epoch of Judges; since Avijama and later to tsar Ioshii it especially widespread in Judea. Statues of Ashere even have been placed in the Jerusalem Temple.

In the Israeli kingdom the cult of Ashery has been entered by Ierobeamom; brilliant blossoming it has reached here at Ahabe under the influence of the wife of its Izebeli. Service of Ashere was made usually under green trees and on high hills and reminded service of Astarte on Bamot. The bible informs that priests of Dagona did not dare to cross a sacred threshold of its temple; the altars devoted to stars heavenly "to troops heavenly" were constructed on roofs of houses (Ieremija, 19, 13; , 1, 5 and .); "to the tsarina heavenly", were brought in the form of a victim or special type of gift pies (Ieremija, 7, 18); god of the Sun had a special chariot with horses which was in the Jerusalem Temple (II Tsars, 23, 11); addressed during a prayer faced to the east (to Iezek., 8, 16); children were sacrificed by Molohu in a valley Ben-Ginnom, in the special place which was called as Tofet (Ieremija, 7, 31 and .) ; The Jerusalem women annually arranged crying concerning death of the Tammuza-adonis (Iezek is similar., 8, 14). At last, in the Bible there are instructions on gardens of the Adonis and on cults of gods of the Reptile and Meni.

Ostrakony (in a Greek way a crock, a splinter of a clay vessel with the records put on it) from Lahisha, Metsad-Hashavjahu or Samaria in which often there are names inclusion , speak about Phoenician cults in the Israeli kingdom. Numerous figures of Astarty have been found in stratifications of the Israeli period. Destruction of the Aradsky temple and recourse of pagan motives from signets testify to reforms of tsar Ioshijahu.

On Astarte, this known Phoenician goddess, we will stop still that has reached all. Jews honoured at least since Jesus Navina when Jews served astart and baal till times of destruction of I Temple, when, according to Ieremii, the Jerusalem women said prayers and did gifts to the heavenly goddess. Strong exaggeration will not tell that Jews honoured its one thousand years. Certainly about its sack struggled judge Samuil, for example, urged to refuse service astart and baal. The cult of Astarty was not alien to Solomonu. After disintegration of the Jewish state, it continued to honour not only in Israel, but also in Judea where tsar Manassija has put it a statue in the Jerusalem Temple.

Religious inscriptions (Tell-Mikne, VII century BC) with references to Asirat are found out. Inscriptions and ostrakons, recently opened (VIII century BC) in Kuntillet Azhrud, in a southwest part of Negeva; and in Kirbet an ale, in foothills of Judea; where various forms of the Lord are mentioned by Jahve Shomron (in the Bible it is a Taurus Samarijsky) and its Ashera, Jahve Teman and its Ashera, Jahve and its Ashera, specify that in an epoch of an identification of god Ela and Vs-vyshnego of Jews, Ashera (Asirat, Astarta), wife Ela, acted and in quality of spouse Jahve.

Religious inscriptions (Tell-Mikne, VII century BC) with references to Asirat are found out. Inscriptions and Ostrakony, recently opened (VIII century BC) in Kuntillet Azhrud, in a southwest part of Negeva; and in Kirbet an ale, in foothills of Judea; where various forms of the Lord are mentioned by Jahve Shomron (in the Bible it is a Taurus Samarijsky) and its Ashera, Jahve Teman and its Ashera, Jahve and its Ashera, specify that during an epoch to monotheism there was an identification of god Ela and "Supreme god" Jews, Ashera (Asirat, Astarta), wife Ela, acted and in quality of spouse Jahve.

In the Israeli and Judaic society esteemed also Anat so, for example, mother Samegara, the hero of Ancient Israel, bore a name of the goddess (Judges 3.31): "Samegar, son Anatov... 600 persons Filistimlans has won".

Jews esteemed Phoenician god Reshefa. It is proved by finds of its figurines in "Palestin", concerning the beginning to I millenium BC Reshef is mentioned in some bible texts. With the statement of monotheism it becomes destructive force on service Jahve.

God Betil will mention in the contract (nearby 670 year BC) Phoenician tsar Baala with with Assyrian tsar Asarhaddonom, it is similar And Iakov there has arranged an altar, and named this place: God Betil for to it God here was. That was a place, on which God spoke to it: I Betil. Prophet Ieremija testifies To it (48.13): "Also Moab for (the not ds. god) Kamosa as the house Izrailev has been dishonoured for god Betilja, the hope" will be dishonoured. In documents of Elefantiny contained personal the names including a component of "Betil". Ancient Jews revered Betilem and tested fear divine before it: Here that (the divine penalties) Betil for extreme your sinfulness will cause to you. The temple of god Betilja was in a city to the Betile/billiard pocket.

Aaron has established the Golden calf who symbolised that God which has deduced Jews from Egypt. Tsar Ierovoam has cast 2 gold statues . The bull in Semitic religions was a symbol of the higher god. In Ugarite in the form of a bull represented to Ball-tsapanu (the main god of this city), and in the form of a cow the his sister and mistress Anatu. We will recollect that god has stolen Europe in the form of a bull. Filon Biblsky describes Astartu with a head of a bull.

The Supreme god, the demiurge and the mythological ancestor at Phoenicians to Silt El (in a Hebrew of Eloah, Elohim) is curious. To silt the father of gods and people, the creator of a universe and all real. One of antiquated variants of the legend about creation of the World by a word of Elohima goes back to a Phoenician myth. As the lord of a universe, the founder of the Universe, extended in time and space, to Silt the father (tsar) of years that there corresponds to a name of Jewish God Ribono went (the lord of eternity).

I.S.Shifman writes: By 1 millenium BC the cult to Silt is gradually superseded by cults of local deities. In a Judaic pantheon to the statement of monotheism the image to Silt (El) already in first half of 1 millenium merges BC with an image Jahve. However traces of representations about Silt the Supreme deity heading council of gods, have remained and in the Bible (Psalms 81).

The Jewish god Jahve same Phoenician El: in the Genesis it is named by Higher Elom, the creator of the sky and the Earth, that is the same that whom was to Silt in Ugarits.

Statues of Supreme god of Carthago Baal-Hammon have been decorated by figures of winged animals with human heads, and in the Bible on them Jjahve (I Sam sits., 4,4; II Sam., 6,2; Jes. 37,16; Ps. 17,11). They decorated a throne both Jewish, and Phoenician tsars.

As to idols the absolute bosh often meeting in books on stories as if ancient Jews did not create images of gods (and in general someone). Actually the sea of the Jewish images, figures, the seals, mosaics is found in synagogues etc., than not different from the Phoenician literally.

On the other hand, Phoenicians obviously had the party considering that gods (God) should be represented abstractly, in the form of symbols a sign on Tannit, , a solar disk, a half moon etc. also the name of god for for example, Melkart in transfer the tsar of a city, sounds as "post" Perhaps, disappeared.

The cult centre of Canaan located nearby to Jericho of Gilgal has been transformed by Jews into a sanctuary at once after intrusion into Canaan. According to tradition, here after transition by Israelis of Jordan the Precept Ark (Navin has been delivered. 4:6, 19), here Israelis have passed a ceremony of trimming and have celebrated the first Easter in the Earth Promised (Navin. 5:211).

The Phoenician goddess of the underground world of Sheol at Jews designated a next world, the death world.

Shekel a gold and silver weight not only ancient Jews, but also at Phoenicians. Carthago coins were based on a shekel weight. 30 silver coins for which Judas Iskariot has betrayed Jesus Christ, were 30 tirs shekels.

Phoenicians buried corpses.


That the Jewish language (Hebrew) is identical Phoenician, the Bible recognises: there the Hebrew is directly named sefat by Kna'an language of Canaan. Inscriptions, own names, glosses in tell-amarnskih documents and at classical writers, a monologue at Plavta (Poenulus) are insufficient sources for acquaintance to Phoenician language, however and from this the big affinity of Phoenician language to Jewish in konsonatism is visible, to etymology, syntax and a lexicon. Distinctions are insignificant, and all dialectic character. So, in Phoenician traces of the difficult verbal form (as "fuit" with perf are found out.) ; Less often, than in Jewish, the member is used; words sometimes have wider or narrower value; some words, little-used in Jewish, are usual in the Phoenician; a relative pronoun the same that in Assyrian (sha), instead of in Jewish (asher); there is a difference in vocalism. The dialect of Bibla is closest to Jewish, how much it is known from an inscription of Iehavmeleka. Aramaic the Jewish language and the alphabet became in connection with the Babylon captivit

The Phoenician literature reminds the Jewish: Joseph Flavy results two fragments about Phoenician tsars, on these fragments it is possible to see that the last came nearer on style to bible so-called historical books. On the other hand, the Marseilles and Carthago sacral inscriptions remind the book of Levit, and, maybe, represent fragments of the similar ritual code.

From words of Midrasha that taste of homogeneous fishes in one sea in various places not the identical: taste of fish near to Akko absolutely other, than taste of the same fish at coast of Spain also differs from taste of the fish taken from coast of Sidon (Ber. r., V, 8), proves participation of Jews in development of Phoenician colonies.

On island Dzherbu in a synagogue in village Jara Zagira, under local legends, a gate of the Jerusalem Temple has been built in. A gate was brought with itself by a family of the priests running in 70 from destroyed Jerusalem. By the way, this family has gone on Dzherbu not casually: here long since, since Solomona the Jewish community prospered. At that time the island represented Phoenician trading sea base with solid port. Under local legends, Ezra has ordered to send local levits in Israel. Certain Jew Avraam writes to Carthago for the first time (about 630 years) about Magomede.

Tsirkin asserts that in Ugarite on a head of the bride poured fur-trees, there was a trimming, a bar-mitsva.

At last sacred Jerusalem has been based by Phoenicians. They built the Temple.

In general the Jerusalem Temple with its attributes a typical Phoenician temple, and is called it, as well as Phoenician temples, btl the house of god as in it there lived God, and only to priests of times in a year was authorised to come there. Jews as well as Phoenicians did not transfer temples, and to cases of their destruction, built anew on the same place.

Concerning tribes of Canaan in the Talmud it is said that they will merge with Israel during coming of the Messiah that says that their relationship with Jews was clear to all.


Hence, Phoenician history same compound stories of Jews, as well as history Khazars, Falasha, Himjara, Karaims, Adiabeny, Krymchaks etc.

Obviously and that the Spanish and Moroccan Jews descendants of Phoenicians.

And Phoenicians and Jews are different names of one people.

Andrey Zelev ( )
This text is a summary of the Russian text


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